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Citing Sources by the Chicago Manual of Style
Traditional Footnotes/Endnotes for Term Papers


1. Give the source of a direct quotation.

2. Acknowledge the source of opinions, interpretations, etc., which you have paraphrased.

3. Give credit for statistical information, illustrations, and charts you have used.

4. Add an explanation to clarify or expand a statement in the text of your paper.

5. Make cross references to other parts of your paper.


1. To show the reader that you are using a footnote, place an Arabic numeral right after the material to which it refers.

2. This number in the text of the paper should be a little above the line.

3. Allow space for the footnotes at the bottom of the page. (A simpler way is to list them all on a separate sheet at the end of your paper and call them endnotes.

4. Begin your notes three space blow the text of your paper.

5. Single-space each note; double-space between notes.

6. Indent five spaces from the left margin, as for a paragraph.

7. Begin by typing from the line the same Arabic numeral you used in the text.

8. Return to the line and type the footnote without leaving a space after the numeral.

9. The second line of the footnote should return to the left margin.



First References


The first citation of a footnote reference must give complete information in logical order.

1. Author’s name (usually not inverted.

2. Title of publication.

3. Facts of publication: place, publisher, and date.

4. Volume and page numbers.

5. Date of periodicals.

Examples of Footnotes/Endnotes

(These examples came from A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, by Kate Turabian, 6th ed, 1996

Based on the Chicago Manual of Style, 1993.)

Books with a single author:

1 William Stanley Jevons, The Theory of Political Economy, 2nd ed. Ref. (London: Macmillan, 1879), 45.

Books with editor/s as an “author”:

9Max Komotose, Ira Sneed, and Sarah Swidher, ed., Ensemble Acting in the Off-Loop Theaters of Chiago (Toledo: Wright-Smart Press, 1995), 193.

Articles in a journal or magazine:

38 Richard Jackson, “Running down the Up-Escalator: Regional Inequality in Papua New Guinea.” Australian Geographer 14 (May 1979): 175-84

Articles in Encyclopedias:

Unsigned article: 41. Columbia Encyclopedia, 5th ed., s.v. “cold war.”

Signed article: 42.Morris Jastrow, “Nebo,” in Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th ed.

Subsequent References

Usually one does not repeat the complete form of a reference after first giving it; use a shorthand form. The simplest form is the name of the author and the page number only.


4. Haskins, 15.

If you are using more than one work by the same author, make subsequent references clear by identifying the separate works briefly.


5. Drucker, Landmarks, 108.

Scholars are trying to simply reference and footnote forms. However “ibid.” (a shortened form of the Latin ibidem, meaning “in the same place”) is still sometimes used if the source of a footnote, but not necessarily the same page number is the same as the one immediately preceding it on a page of text.


6. Max Plowman, An Introduction to the Study of Blake (London: Gollancz, 1982), 32.

7. Ibid.

8. Ibid,., 68.

Examples for Bibliographic Entries using the Chicago Manual of Style’s Form

I. Books and Pamphlets

A. one author:

Franklin, John Hope. George Washington Williams: A Biography. Chicago: University of Chicago Pr. 1985.

B. two authors:

Lynd, Robert, and Helen Lynd. Middletown: A Study in American Culture. New York: Harcourt Brace and World. 1929.

C. three authors:

Lyon, Mary, Bryce Lyon, and Henry S. Lucas. The Wardrobe Book of William de Norwell, 12 July 1338 to 27 May 1340. With the collaboration of Jean de Sturler. Brussels: Commission Royale d’Histoire de Belgique, 1983.

D. no author given:

The Lottery. London: J.Watts, [1732].

E. editor as author:

Van Hallberg, Robert, ed. Canons. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984.

F. edition other than the first:

Bober, M.M. Karl Marx’s Interpretation of History. 2nd ed, Harvard Economic Studies. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1948.

G. association or institution as author:

American Library Association, Young Adult Services Division, Services Statement Development Committee. Directions for Library Service to Young Adults. Chicago: American Library Association, 1978.

II. Encyclopedia Articles

Well-known reference books are generally not listed in bibliographies. When they are cited in notes, the facts of publication (place of publication, publisher and date) are usually omitted, but the edition, if not the first, must be specified.

A. signed article:

J.W. Cosyns-Carr. “Blake, William,” in Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th ed.

B. unsigned article:

Encyclopedia Americana. 1963 ed., s.v. “Sitting Bull.”

III. Articles in Journals, Magazines, and Newspapers

A. article of story in a popular magazine:

Weber, Bruce. “The Myth Maker: The Creative Mind of Novelist E.L. Doctorow.” New York Times Magazine, 20 October, 1985, 42.

B. article in a scholarly journal:

Jackson, Richard. “Running down the Up-Escakatir: Regional Inequality in Papua New Guinea.” Australian Geographer 14 (May 1979): 175-84.

C. no author given:

“The Victor…for the Moment.” Time, 10 August 1962, 15.

D. article in newspaper:

“Amazing Amazon.” New York Times, 11 January 1969, 14.