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Citing Sources by the American Psychological Association (APA)


Book - Single Author

Angelou, M. (1994). The Complete Collected Poems of Maya Angelou. New York: Random House.

Book - Multiple Authors

Calfee, R. C., & Valencia, R. R. (1991). APA Guide to Preparing Manuscripts for Journal Publication. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Book - Corporate/Organization Author

U. S. Department of Labor. (1996). Occupational Outlook Handbook (2000-2001 ed.) Washington, DC: Bernan.

Book - Unknown or No Author

The HarperCollins World Atlas. (1994). New York: Scott Foresman.

Edited Book

Williams, M. W. (Ed.). (1993). The African American Encyclopedia. (Vols. 1-6). New York: Marshall Cavendish.

Chapter or Article in an Edited Book

O'Neil J. M., & Egan, J. (1992). Men's and women's gender role journeys. In E. K. Wise (Ed.), Gender issues across the life cycle (pp. 107-123). New York: Springer.

General Encyclopedia - Unsigned Article

Amendment. (1996). In The Encyclopedia Americana (Vol. 1, p. 668). Danbury, CT: Grolier.

General Encyclopedia - Signed Article

Bergmann, P. G. (1993). Relativity. In The New Encyclopedia Britannica (Vol. 26, pp. 501-508). Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica.

Journal Article - One Author

Farmer, K. U. (1995). Biofeedback and visualization for peak performance. Journal of Sport Rehabilitation, 4, 59-64.

Journal Article – Two Authors

Scott, M. J., & Palmer, J. (1994). Eight principles for "total quality" schools. Education, 115, 139-143.

Journal Article – Three To Six Authors

Kernis, M. H., Cornell, D. P., Sun, C. R., Berry, A., & Harlow, T. (1993). There's more to self- esteem than whether it is high or low: The importance of stability of self-esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 1190-1204.

Journal Article - More Than Six Authors

Harris, M., Karper, E., Stacks, G., Hoffman, D., DeNiro, R., Cruz, P., et al. (2001). Writing labs and the Hollywood connection. Journal of Film and Writing, 44, 213-245.

Journal Article - Each Issue Paged Separately

Sellards, S., & Mills, M. E. (1995). Administrative issues for use of nurse practitioners. Journal of Nursing Administration, 25 (5), 64-70.

Magazine Article – One Author

Henry, W. A., III. (1990, April 9). Making the grade in today's schools. Time, 135, 28-31.

Magazine Article - Unsigned

Panther's passage. (1998, May 18). People, 49, 70.

Newspaper Article – Daily

Weidner, D. (1995, August 28). Scientists have some success against disease with nicotine. Winston-Salem Journal, pp. B1, B7.

Newspaper Article - Daily - No Author

Cambodian orphans use Internet to reach out. (1999, January 15). Winston-Salem Journal, p. A2.

Review Of A Book, Film or Television Program

Baumeister, R. F. (1993). Exposing the self-knowledge myth [Review of the book The self knower: A hero under control]. Contemporary Psychology, 38, 466- 467.

Electronic Sources

Journal Article from An Online Database

Mershon, D. H. (1998, November-December). Star Trek on the brain: Alien minds, human minds. American Scientist, 86, 585. Retrieved July 29, 1999, from Academic Search Elite database.

Chapter Or Section Of An Online Document

The Foundation for a Better World. (2000). Pollution and banana cream pie. In Great chefs cook with chlorofluorocarbons and carbon monoxide (Chap. 3). Retrieved July 3, 2001, from:http://www.bamm.com/cream/pollution/bananas.html

Web Site

Lynch, T. (1996). DS9 trials and tribble-ations review. Retrieved October 8, 1997, from Psi Phi: Bradley's Science Fiction Club Web site:  http://www.bradley.edu/campusorg/psiphi/DS9/ep/503r.html

Parenthetical Citations

One recent study finds a genetic link to obesity (Kelp, 2002).

If the author's last name appears in the citation, then only the year is required.

Klep finds a genetic link to obesity (2002).

More Than One Author With The Same Last Name

(H. Thomas, 1999); (W. Thomas, 1980)

Two Or More Works In The Same Parentheses

(Fussell, 1975; Caruth, 1996; Showalter, 1997)

Work With Six Or More Authors

(Smith et al, 1998)

Specific Part Of A Source

(Jones, 1995, chap. 2)

No Known Author

Full Title: "North Carolina Tax Increase" Citation: ("North Carolina," 1999)

Personal Communication: Source: email message from C. A. Thomas

Citation: (C. A. Thomas, personal communication, May 19, 2001)


This guide was modified from a document at http://www.wssu.edu/library/guides/apa.asp. (4/20/05)


Created 2/06